Discursive Strategies and types
The discursive strategies are all those linguistic resources that uses the speaker to maximize the effectiveness of their message, with the intention to meet particular interests.
These strategies are applied on a recurring basis in different discursive formats, and are not limited to oral communication.
There are those who consider that these strategies are not absolute, and may vary depending on the issuer and the context in which they are used.
If the objective is to achieve a specific objective through the message, taking into account contextual variables, the use of discursive strategies becomes crucial, which warrants a conscious preparation of the discourse.
These strategies are not arbitrary; and yet its application in various contexts is linked to the cultural and social context of the participating issuers.
Discursive strategies are applied permanently in trades and professions that make communication their specialty.
It has been extensively theorized about the “forms” adopted by discursive strategies, their evolution, and their use in different specific contexts.
They can be classified as follows: recruitment strategies, credibility, delegitimization, dramatization and controversy; each with its own resources and situations to be exploited.
Types of discursive strategies
The speeches are handled within communicative processes, therefore all the resources must be used to fulfill the objective of the sender: persuade and make his message and his intentions fit into the receiver, so that he can allow him to fulfill his objectives.
They are those used mainly to seduce the recipient and persuade him through the message sent, so that his response represents a change of perspective towards the desired one during the communicative process.
They seek to exalt and reinforce the positions concerned, so that they enter the current of thought of the issuer, and what it seeks.
Recruitment strategies are widely used in business fields and campaigns, as well as in politics, which must maintain a long-standing discourse whose message can always continue to attract new followers.
The recruitment strategies are not limited to the oral aspect, since they are very common in nonverbal and multimedia environments and processes.
These are resources used to shield, reinforcing and increasing the level of credibility that the receiver may have over the issuer.
The use of these strategies must be sustained by a prior management and mastery of the discourse to be handled, since they must use arguments that cannot be easily refuted, while at the same time demonstrating genuineness in their construction.
The good use of credibility strategies can give the issuer a greater magnitude and importance when it comes to dealing with issues of its domain.
They are considered an ideal source in trades such as journalism, where a multitude of sources make use of credibility strategies to become the focus of reference.
The good application of this type of discursive strategies, in some cases must be accompanied by consonant actions that do not contradict or invalidate what was handled in a previous speech, in the case of public spokespersons and images.
Of the most common to apply in speeches that appeal to emotions, or that initially seek disqualification or ignorance of the other.
Although valid, resources for delegitimization may fall into the offense and disrespect in participatory communication processes. However, its use will always generate a response, even if it is not instantaneous.
They are simply defined as a challenge to the existence or identity of the adversary. They are strategies used in spaces for debate and negotiation, and much more explicitly and directly in campaigns and political careers.
It has been estimated that abuse of these resources may incur contradictions and unsubstantiated attacks.
The issuer usually resorts to the use of literary figures and the presentation of assumptions and scenarios that appeal to emotions, anecdote and memory, in order to successfully penetrate the receivers.
They find something in the beauty of the speech that identifies them with their issuer, and they decide to respond positively and in support.
The use of metaphors , analogies and comparisons does not always contain in itself a positive message, since it depends on the issuer and his interests, the intention to cause joy or terror in his receivers, either to exalt himself or to harm another.
Like the previous ones, the valid resources for these strategies are of great importance in political speeches.
Considered negative, they are disqualifying, mainly used to generate abrupt, extreme and sensational reactions.
The purpose is to condition a rapid change in the perspective of the receiver, making him react negatively against the other party.
The use of resources that appeal to the controversy provides the ability to condition a situation, a context, as well as its participants.
Its use may result in consequences that affect the issuer itself, if at any time you are surprised to deny the handling of any information considered sensitive.
Controversial strategies should not be considered the main creative or argumentative weapon of a discourse; nevertheless, its use is considerably high in public, political and social speeches.
Other forms of discursive strategies
The discourses constructed with purely visual or auditory characteristics, or even the combination of several in different media (multimedia), have given way to these new discursive formats, which participate without discrimination in the daily communication process, find their own methods to maximize their posts.
These new resources must be theorized within their own production and propagation schemes, so that they do not become a transmutation of oral strategies, but can provide effectiveness in their speeches, applying unconventional resources.
Despite this, there appear to be patterns that are repeated in the discursive formats. It is understandable, since the appearance of these strategies has always been tied to the particular interests of each man who becomes an issuer.