Language and Linguistics

Linguistic Levels

Basic levels of linguistics

Linguistic levels

  1. Phonetic-Phonological Level
  2. Syntactic Level
  3. Lexical Level
  4. Semantic Level
  5. Phonetic-Phonological Level

At the phonetic-phonological level it is a basic change influenced by internal factors, related to articulatory properties or ease of articulation such as phonetic assimilation, dissimilation and other phenomena such as the epithesis or elision of sounds.

It has also been mentioned that languages can change due to external factors such as the influence of the linguistic substratum, which occurs when speakers of another language acquire the new language as the usual language of communication by carrying phonetic features of their old language. Although technically that would be the creation of a new variety in historical linguistics that type of changes is considered as one of the possible factors of diversification, and therefore “change” of a language.

1.1 The Phonetics

It is the branch of linguistics that studies the production and perception of the sounds of a language in its physical manifestations. Its main branches are: experimental phonetics, articulatory phonetics, phonetics and acoustic phonetics.

1.1.1 Experimental Phonetics: It is the one that studies the oral sounds from the physical point of view, gathering and quantifying the data on the emission and production of the sound waves that configure the articulated sound .

The set of data analyzed when measuring sounds depends solely on the accuracy of the instruments as well as other related knowledge. Important differences have also been discovered in each oral sound.

1.1.2 Articula phonetics: It is the one that studies the sounds of a language from the physiological point of view, that is, it describes which oral organs are involved in its production, in what position they are and how these positions vary the different paths that can follow the air when it comes out of the mouth, nose, or throat, so that different sounds are produced.

The organs involved in the articulation of sound are mobile or fixed: The lips, jaw, tongue and vocal cords are mobile, sometimes referred to as articulatory organs. With his help the speaker modifies the air outlet that comes from the lungs. The teeth, the alveoli, the palate and the veil of the palate are fixed. The sounds are produced when two articulatory organs are contacted, for example, the bilabial (p), which requires contact between the two lips.

1.1.3 Phoneme: It is the study of the sounds in the discourse , that is, of the phonemes that are the minimum distinctive units.

For example, between the words the and the only one there is a difference of meaning and form that is the one that represents the distinction between the phonemes [a] and [o]. The same happens between shovel, for, pay, corduroy and pass, the differences of meaning are supported by the different phonemes that distinguish them, that is, [l], [r], [g], [n] and [s] . The phonemes are also configured by minimum units that differentiate them from each other and are the so-called distinctive features.

1.1.4 Acoustic phonetics: It is the one that studies the sound wave as the output of any resonator; that is, it matches the phonation system with any other sound emission and reproduction system . In communication , sound waves have an interestgreater than the articulation or production of the sounds, for a given audience it receives and decodes the impression even though it has been emitted by means of an oral articulation, or by means of a certain sound emitting apparatus or even by means of a parrot . The spectrograph can be used to record the most significant characteristics of the sound waves and to determine the result of the different articulatory activities. Experimentally, in order to get to know what are the necessary and sufficient features that identify the sounds of the language, parts of the sound wave recording were suppressed and others were reproduced.

1.2 Phonology

Study of the phonemes of a language. Describe how sounds work (in a language or in general language) on an abstract or mental level.

The r presents variants. Thus, for example, it is not the same to say but which dog. These are different phonemes and they will be dedicated to those who study Phonology.

In the Phonology there are several branches:

1.2.1 The Phonemic , which studies the phonemes of a language.

1.2.2 The Prosody that studies the suprasegments (accent, intonation) that accompany the phonemes and that, like them, are able to change the meaning ( distinctive function ). For example: term, term and end only vary in accent position, but they are different linguistic signs ; therefore, the accent must be studied by phonology.

2. Morphological Level

It deals with how words are constructed from smaller units of meaning called morphemes, for example:

Quickly + Mind == Quickly. And it includes:

2.1 Morphology

Study the internal structure of words to define, define and classify their units, the kinds of words to which it gives rise ( flexive morphology ) and the formation of new words (lexical morphology).

2.1.1 Flexive Morphology

Study the variation of word forms by combining a lexeme with different flexible morphemes such as number, time , person , and so on. Thus, I love, love, love, for example, they are flexible forms of the verb to love, and in turn this word is the canonical form that, by convention, represents them all. Different forms of a canonical form constitute its paradigm

. Flexive morphology studies the semantic structure and the shape of the paradigms .

2.1.2 Lexical Morphology

It deals with the resources that languages possess to form new words from existing forms. Usually, word formation processes are divided into derivation and composition.

In general, words can be broken down into significant minimum units called monemas. Monemas, in turn, can be Lexema or Morfema.

2.1.3 Monema

It is the minimum linguistic sign, endowed, therefore, with meaning and meaning. It can be part of a word (in-toc-able), or constitute an entire word, when it cannot be decomposed (crocodile).

2.1.4 Lexema

It is a unit with full significance; that is, it designates concepts (names, verbs, adverbs, adjectives). Traditionally, it is called root. It is the least significant form, it is the one that gives the meaning to the word.

2.1.5 Morpheme

It is a unit of grammatical significance that modifies the meaning of the lexemes or relates them to each other (endings, prefixes, suffixes, determinants, prepositions and conjunctions).

3. Syntactic Level

Study the combinations of the linguistic units so that they perform a function and form sentences.

Syntactic function: it is the role that an element plays within a context, each function refers to the functions of the other elements

The syntactic structures of a language are limited, however they can lead to an unlimited number of possible messages. This fact is possible thanks to a characteristic of the language called recursion. Recursiveness also offers the theoretically indefinite possibility of fitting some syntactic structures into others.

3.1 Syntax

Study of the syntagmatic combinatorial, on two levels: the sub-rational, which corresponds to the so-called phrases, and the sentence that studies the specific syntagmatic relationships of the linguistic signs that make up, in turn, the upper grammatical linguistic sign of the system of language.

Within a sentence the functions of subject and predicate are distinguished, and within a phrase the functions of other complements are distinguished.

3.2 Distinction Between Morphology and Syntax

The grammatical description of all the languages ​​of the world is divided, by convention, into two sections: morphology and syntax. The relationship between the two is as follows:

Morphology explains the internal structure of words while syntax describes how words combine to form phrases, sentences and phrases.

4. Lexical Level

The lexicon can mean a list of words; the words used in a specific region, the words of a language, or a language of programming , disciplines dealing with the lexicon are several comprising:

4.1 Lexicology

It is the set of words that our language has, is not fixed or remains stable. Words change shape and meaning. Over time, some disappear, while others arise, necessary to designate new inventions , discoveries or cultural changes; Study of the words of a language, its organization and its meanings.

It is usually considered that the lexicon or vocabulary of a language is formed by words, but the meaning of “word” is too vague and ambiguous to refer to the units of study of lexicology. Instead, we talk about lexical units, abstract entities whose scope goes beyond what is commonly considered words.

On the one hand, a lexical unit includes all the different forms that a word adopts by morphological variation to express gender , number, person, mode, time, etc. Thus, the lexical unit loving represents all the ways in which this verb can be presented in the use of language: I love, love, love . It can be understood, therefore, that the units studied by lexicology are lexemes, abstract units with lexical meaning that combine with each other.

On the other hand, a lexical unit can be an expression formed by what are usually considered several words, which in turn may have morphological variation: take into account, bank of data , today, good God.

4.2 Lexicography :It deals with the theoretical principles on which the composition of dictionaries is based , the representation of the vocabulary of a natural language or a sector of it (a dialect, sociolect, etc.); It is therefore a branch of lexicology, which privileges the applied aspects of the composition of dictionaries, without this meaning that it does not involve reflection on the theoretical problems that this work entails. On the contrary, lexicography is usually defined as “the theory of the description of dictionaries” and the ” codification of the paradigmatic and syntagmatic structure of the lexicon of a language, the orderly transmission ofinformation lexical (and grammatical) as dictionary . ”

5. Semantic Level

It deals with the meaning of words and how meanings come together to give meaning to a sentence, it also refers to the meaning independent of the context, that is to say the isolated sentence.

5.1 Semantics :

Study the meaning of the words and the relationship established between signifier and signifier, or between different meanings; study of the meaning of linguistic signs.

From the point of view of speech, as an action , it stands out:

5.1.1 Text : superior communication unit . It is a composition of signs encoded in a writing system (such as an alphabet) that forms a unity of meaning.

5.1.2 Pragmatic: Learn how enunciation and statement, deixis, the modalities, speech acts, presupposition, the information structure of the sentence, the analysis of speech , the dialogue and linguistic textual.

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